The international container shipping industry has an enormous economic 
footprint. All told, the industry transports more than one-third of the value of 
global trade, and provides more than 4.2 million jobs. Seaborne trade has grown with the world economy - at any given point, the largest shipping lines transport more than 3 percent of the globe’s gross national product. And because shipping routes play a huge role in the regional growth and the development of today’s complex supply chains, the industry’s economic reach is even greater.
       This economic footprint comes with a heavy environmental footprint, as well. The biggest environmental impacts are felt in the air and water. Carbon emissions from shipping alone are estimated at 3 to 4 percent of global carbon emissions.While environment presents the biggest risks and opportunities for international container shipping companies, the industry also faces significant issues related to security, health and safety, business ethics, and social responsibility.

       These challenges are varied. The industry’s role as a global connector and facilitator of trade means it has a meaningful and often significant influence over which producers can attain access to different markets. International container shipping companies also deal with issues of legality; because both legal and illegal products are transported through the industry’s networks, companies find themselves under the same kind of pressure that telecommunication services providers have experienced for transmitting content they can’t control. A third problem:Because container shipping companies operate in a number of global markets with no or limited enforcement of the rule of law, they are regularly exposed to human rights risks and unethical business practices.

       The sustainability challenges are therefore categorized into five major topic areas: Environment, Health and Safety, Security, Social Responsibility, and Business Ethics. Whilst our research shows that these areas bring their own unique set of risks and opportunities for companies to manage, we also find that the evolution of the sustainability challenges within the industry are far from being immune to wider societal changes occurring, and are in many ways a direct function of such mega-trends. There are four suggestion of mega-trends will exercise an important influence on the industry:

» Hyper-transparency
» Rise of rights and local governance
» Regulated carbon and resource constraints
» Socio-economic changes







International Maritime Consultative Organization. A forum in which most major maritime nations participate and through which recommendations for the carriage of dangerous goods, bulk commodities and maritime regulations become internationally acceptable.

Inland Points Intermodal. Inland carriage by another mode of transportation after discharge.

International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. The IMO recommendations for the carriage of dangerous goods by sea.

Shipment of goods from a foreign country.

Import License
A document required and issued by some national governments authorizing the importation of goods into their individual countries.

Import Permit
Usually required for items that might affect the public health, morals, animal life, vegetation, etc. Examples include foodstuffs, feedstuffs, pharmaceuticals (human and
veterinary), medical equipment, seeds, plants and various written material (including tapes, cassettes, movies, TV tapes or TV movies). In some countries an import permit is the same as an import license.

In Transit
In transit, or in passage.

Inward bound. Direction of vessel or cargo going to port of discharge or final destination.

Incoterms are a set of uniform rules codifying the interpretation of trade terms defining the rights and obligation of both buyer and seller in an international transaction, thereby enabling anotherwise complex basis for a sale contract to be accomplished in three letters. Incoterms are drafted by the International Chamber of Commerce.

Inland Clearance Depot
A CFS with Customs Clearance Facilities.

Insulated Container
A container insulated on the walls, roof, floor and doors, to reduce the effect of external temperatures on the cargo.

Insulated Tank Container
The frame of a container constructed to hold one or more thermally insulated tanks for liquids.

Transfer of a container from one party to another.

Interchange Points
A terminal at which freight in the course of transportation is delivered by one transportation line to another.

Water service between two coasts; usually refers to water service between a point on the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts.

Used to denote movements of cargo or container between motor, rail or water carriers.

Intermodal Transport
Moving ocean freight containers by various transportation modes. The fact that the containers are of the same size and have common handling characteristics permits them to be transferred from truck to railroad to air carrier to ocean carrier.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
ISO is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 130 countries, one from each country. It is a non-governmental organization established in 1947 to promote the development of standardization facilitating international trade. ISO's work results in international agreements which are published as International Standards



Hello Malaysian ;)

Long time no see right ? So how's your life ? We hope everything gonna be okay . Today , we want share some knowledge to all of you . So here we go ~

Did you know there have different between liner and tramp ?

Liner is usually follow the schedule when to move the product. The rates of liner are fixed and also their time. Liner will publish their schedule and rates to the public . For example, when the customer ask to the liner to deliver the product today to the China. But the schedule to the China has state on tomorrow . So, the liner will deliver the customer product only tomorrow not today. This is because it should follow the schedule.

Usually liner are discussed their rates with their member of liner conference. They do not change the rates of the service. This is because the rates are fixed for all member of liner conference. In liner conference also will be fixed their port of call. They cannot stop at the any port. They should follow their regulation. When they changes their rates or dis obey, they can be penalty. All the member of liner conference will get same earning.

Tramps is not follow the schedule when to move the product. It only require when the customer want to used their service. their service price are not fixed. It also depends on the carrier to set up the price of the service. Usually tramps carry the product in seasonal demand and also bulk cargo. For example grain, coal, sugar. Tramps can give their service to customer at any time that customer want.

Tramps also handle the urgent product to deliver or emergency product. So, in this case, tramps can take advantage from the shipper . Carrier can take the higher cost of service to the shipper. This is because they should deliver the product in fast and also the price are not to negotiate . So, the shipper will accept, when the carrier set the price of the service is high . This is because they only think that the product should be arrived at the customer on time .



Hague Rules
1924 International Convention on Carriage of Goods by Sea. These rules govern liability for loss or damage to goods carried by sea under a bill of lading.

Hague-Visby Rules
1968 Revision of Hague Rules.

Hamburg Rules
In March 1978 an international conference in Hamburg adopted a new set of rules (The Hamburg Rules), which radically alter the liability which shipowners have to bear for loss or damage to goods in the courts of those nations where the rules apply.

Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding
A multi-purpose international goods-classification for manufacturers. Transporters, exporters, importers, customs officials, statisticians, and others in classifying goods

moving in international trade under a single commodity code. Developed under the auspices of the Customs Cooperations Council (CCC), an international customs organization in Brussels, this code is a hierarchically structured product nomenclature containing approximately 5,000 headings and subheadings describing the articles moving in international trade. It is organized into 99 chapters arranged in 22 sections. Sections encompass an industry [ (e.g., Section XI, Textiles and Textile Articles); chapters encompass the various materials and products of the industry (e.g.: Chapter 50, Silk; Chapter 55, Manmade Staple Fibres; Chapter 57, Carpets).] The basic code contains four-digit headings and six-digit subheadings. (The U.S. will add digits for tariff and statistical purposes. In the U.S. duty rates will be the 8-digit level; statistical suffixes will be at the 10-digit level. The Harmonized System (HS) is scheduled to supplant the current U.S. tariff schedule (TSUSA) in January 1988.)

The opening in the deck of a vessel; gives access to the cargo hold.

The participating carrier responsible for drayage.

Heavy Lift
Articles too heavy to be lifted by a ship's tackle.

Heavy-Lift Charge
A charge made for lifting articles too heavy to be lifted by a ship's tackle.

High Cube
Any container which exceeds 8 feet 6 inches (102 inches) in height, usually 9 feet 6 inches.

House B/L
Bill of lading issued by forwarder.

House-to-House (H/H)
See CY/CY.

House-to-Pier (H/P)

The body of a vessel exclusive of masts, yards, sails, rigging, machinery and equipment.

Hull Underwriter
The person with whom the ship hull, machinery apparel, and tackle is insured.



General Rate Increase

General Agreement on Tariff and Trade. An international multilateral agreement embodying a code of practice for fair trading in international commerce.

General Average
General average is an unwritten, non-statutory, international maritime law which is universally recognized and applied. It is founded on the principle that vessel and goods are parties to the same venture and share exposure to the same perils, which may require sacrifice or the incurring of extraordinary expense on the part of one for the benefit of the whole venture.

Genset (Generator Set)
A portable power generator, which converts fuel into electrical power by mechanical means, and from which a reefer draws power. A clip-on generator set is mounted to the front of the refrigeration unit. An underslung generator set is mounted to the chassis upon which the reefer is mounted for handling and transport. The underslung generator set can be either side-mounted or center-mounted on the chassis.

The front rails of the chassis that raise above the plane of the chassis and engage in the tunnel of a container.

Gross Tonnage
Applies to vessels, not to cargo. Determined by dividing by 100 the contents, in cubic feet, of the vessel's closed-in spaces. A vessel ton is 100 cubic feet.

Gross Weight
Entire weight of goods, packaging and container, ready for shipment.



European Union Naval Force Somalia – Operation Atalanta, NATO and Combined Task Force 151 (CTF 151) – the big three – call upon the shipping industry to continue to take anti-piracy measures despite the current downward trend in piracy events.In a recent report published by the International Maritime Bureau it was announced that there was a 54% drop in global piracy during the first half of 2012. One of the key contributors to this welcome development was the fall in both Somali hijackings and attacks. There are many factors which have led to this, two of which were the work of military forces in the region and self-protection measures taken by commercial shipping.
“We currently see a tactical and reversible success. It is of utmost importance that pressure on Somali pirates and their business model is maintained and even increased as the strategic context, the situation in Somalia allowing for pirates to act, has not yet changed” said Deputy Operation Commander Rear Admiral Gualtiero Mattesi, “International Navies and all merchant vessels transiting the High Risk Area, need to remain vigilant and uphold their respective responsibilities to support the fight against piracy.”
By joining forces, counter piracy efforts are more effective and can achieve more than any one ship, navy, organisation or country working alone. Even with all this military presence, the efforts of our naval forces cannot guarantee safety in the region. It is for this reason that CTF 151, NATO and the EU remind all ship-owners, operators and managers to continue to educate and train their mariners in both the threat and how to mitigate it.
The booklet Best Management Practices version 4 (BMP4) provides useful updates for masters in implementing protection measures to deter piracy. It is based on lessons learned from ships’ masters and can be downloaded from the NATO Shipping Centre and EU NAVOR/Maritime Security Centre – Horn of Africa websites ( where you can find information about the latest pirate eattacks and where they occurred.
Working together the military and the maritime industry is having a positive effect in frustrating the efforts of pirates. Despite the recent encouraging news now is not the time to lessen the efforts of all stakeholders in this area.
The European Union is concerned with the continuing impact of piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia on international maritime security and on the economic activities and security of countries in the region.
As a result, and as part of a comprehensive approach to Somalia, the EU launched the European Union Naval Force Somalia – Operation ATALANTA (EU NAVFOR – ATALANTA) within the framework of the European Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) and in accordance with relevant UN Security Council Resolutions (UNSCR) and International Law.
After the launch of EU NAVFOR – Operation ATALANTA in December 2008, the operation continues to successfully perform its mission and contributes to improving maritime security off the coast of Somalia and in the Indian Ocean. In March 2012 the Council of the EU extended the EU counter-piracy operation until December 2014.
By UNSC mandate, EU NAVFOR – Operation ATALANTA conducts:
* the protection of vessels of the World Food Programme (WFP) delivering food aid to displaced persons in Somalia; the protection of African Union Mission on Somalia (AMISOM) shipping;
* the deterrence, prevention and repression of acts of piracy and armed robbery off the Somali coast;
* the protection of vulnerable shipping off the Somali coast on a case by case basis;
* in addition, EU NAVFOR – ATALANTA shall also contribute to the monitoring of fishing activities off the coast of Somalia.

Source :



Kuwaiti economy and oil analysts predicted that oil prices will continue to increase in global markets, but not go beyond the USD 120 per barrel barrier.
The experts confirmed in separate interviews with KUNA, that geopolitical events are still the main reason for the rise in oil prices and all concur that development in these events might cause a hike in prices to the USD 140 pb levels.

The wave of tornadoes that are taking place in the United States, expected to be the worst in years, may also be a factor in the rise of prices, over the medium range term, particularly in the events of closure of oil factories and the disruption of supply to markets.

However, Kuwaiti economy expert Hajjaj Bukhadhour predicted that oil prices would not exceed the USD 120 barrier, especially if current developments and geopolitical conditions stayed the same.

Bukhadhour added that current prices are being affected by geopolitical events in the Middle East, in addition to a wave of tornadoes that swept the United States of America.

For his part, Jamal Al-Gharabali, Kuwaiti oil expert, said that "it is possible that prices would reach the USD 130-40 pb range, in light of developments in Syria and the Iranian situation, especially after recent Iranian statements of linking security in Syria to its own security."

Al-Gharabali, also predicted that geopolitical events will change in the upcoming period, but stressed keenness by the producing and consuming countries to maintain prices at current levels.

Sumber :



Hello Malaysian .

New glossary for word F .

Freight All Kind. System whereby freight is charged per container, irrespective of the nature of the goods, and not according to a Tariff.

Free Alongside Ship.

Full Containerload. Arrangement whereby shipper utilizes all the space in a container which he packs himself.

Free In and Out.

Stands for Free On Board which is a mercantile expression used in sale contracts denoting that goods have to be delivered by the shippers on board the vessel at a particular place, free of charge.

See CY/CY.


Feeder Vessel
Vessel employed in normally short sea routes to fetch or carry goods and containers to and from ocean going vessels.

Forty-foot Equivalent Unit (40'' or 2 TEUs)

Final Destination (FND)
End of carrier liability where carrier delivers the cargo to consignee.

Flash Point
A temperature that when certain inflammable cargo reaches will trigger spontaneous ignition. It is an IMCO standard information requirement for dangerous goods.

Federal Maritime Commission. US Government Agency responsible for regulatory aspects of all maritime activities.

(a) The price paid to the carrier for the transportation of goods or merchandise by sea from one place to another. (b) Freight is also used to denote goods which are in the process of being transported from one place to another.

Fresh Air Exchange (FAE)
The fresh air exchange system on a reefer removes harmful gases from reefers carrying
sensitive perishable commodities. The fresh air vent is located on the reefer machinery end of the container. The fresh air vent is adjustable to accommodate a variety of cargo and chilled load operating conditions. The fresh air vent should be tightly closed when carrying frozen cargo.

Full Cellular Ship
A ship fitted for container carriage in all available space. The ship is fitted with vertical cells for container placement both below and above deck. No provisions are available for cargo other than containers.

Treatment with a pesticide active ingredient that is a gas under treatment conditions


For this entry admin wants to share to all followers and visitors about another major achievement of Malaysia's construction of underground tunnels. Let's take a bit of knowledge about the project.

The "Stormwater Management And Road Tunnel" or "SMART Tunnel", is a storm drainage and road structure in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and a major national project in the country. The 9.7 km (6.0 mi) tunnel is the longest stormwater tunnel in South East Asia and second longest in Asia.

The main objective
1.   To solve the problem of flash floods in Kuala Lumpur and;
2. To reduce traffic jams along Jalan Sungai Besi and Loke Yew flyover at Pudu during rush hour.

There are two components of this tunnel, the stormwater tunnel and motorway tunnel. It is the longest multi-purpose tunnel in the world.

Stormwater tunnel
Motorway tunnel
Construction cost: RM1,887 million (US$514.6 million)
Motorway tunnel length: 4 km (2.5 mi)
Stormwater tunnel length: 9.7 km (6.0 mi)
Structure type: Double Deck
Diameter: 13.2 m (43.3 ft) (outer diameter)
Ingress and egress: 1.5 km (0.93 mi) at Jalan Sultan Ismail and Jalan Imbi
Tunnelling method: Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM)
Length: 1.4 km (0.87 mi) at Jalan Tun Razak
TBM type: Slurry shield
Links: 1.6 km (0.99 mi) at Kuala Lumpur-Seremban Expressway Links: City Centre near Kg. Pandan Roundabout KL-Seremban Expressway near Sungai Besi Airport

FM Radio channels available in the tunnel

Klasik Nasional FM
87.7 MHz
97.2 MHz
Nasional FM
95.3 MHz
Hot FM
97.6 MHz
Fly FM
95.8 MHz
Hitz FM
92.9 MHz
Traxx FM
90.3 MHz



Hai Hai Hello Hello.. <3
Admin Shaa indahouse..
Semalam admin Shaa da bebel panjang lebar tentang apa itu Incoterm kan??
Kali ni admin Shaa share sedikit gambar2 yang admin Shaa amek. Tp bukan pasal kapal lah..
Gambar yang admin Shaa amek mase kelas Shipping td.. 

Meyh Cekitout..

Tulah dia muke-muke yang khusyuk study..
Huhuhuhuhu. Rajin sungguh kawan-kawan admin ni..

Erkk!! Orang lain sibuk dga lecture kat depan ni khusyuk tido??
Ish3.. Kawan-kawan apa denda yang kita
nak bagi kat dia neh?? Cepat fikir!

Yang lecture kt depan tu admin Saiful Fitri dan admin Shafiq.. hehehehe. hensem tak dorang??



Hai Hai Hello Hello.. <3 to all viewers and the beloved blogger. Thanks for comin.. Hehehe.

Lame tak hapdet blog kan? Kali ni admin Shaa pulak yang takeover blog neh. Biasanya admin Tiqa. Tapi sekang dia tga berehat seketika dpd aktiviti berbloging. Atas sebab2 pribadi. Huhu.

Hari ni admin Shaa nak cerita sedikit tentang INCOTERM. Uols pnh dga atau tahu pasal INCOTERM ni tak? Incoterm ni ialah sila klik THIS PAGE. Kat sini uols akan di beritahu tentang apa itu incoterm dan jenis jenis nya..

* Panduan nak tengok gmbar di atas:
  1. warna biru Seller Responsible.
  2. warna oren Buyer Responsible.
  3. warna biru cair Seller Responsible for insurance, (valued goods)
  • line pertama ialah cost
  • line kedua ialah risk
  • line ketiga ialah insurance (CIP dan CIF)

Sebelum tu, ada dua jenis Term of transportation untuk ni. EXW, FCA, CPT, CIP, DAT, DAP dan DDP untuk segala jenis mood of transport. darat atau udara kot. Yang selebihnya tu untuk sea and inland transportation. Yang guna jalan laut atau sungai.

ok. Tiba masanya untuk admin Shaa terangkan incoterm2 yang terlibat itu.

  1. EXW : Seller hanya bertanggungjawab dari segi RISK, COST hanya setakat seller premis atau warehouse dorang. selebihnya akan ditanggng oleh buyer.
  2. FCA : Seller hanya bertanggungjawab tentang Risk, Cost hanya sampai di carrier point of origin. 
  3. CPT : Dari segi cost, Seller yang bertanggungjawab sampai Named Place atau buyer Destination. Tapi dari segi Risk, Seller hanya bertanggungjawab sampai kat carrier sahaja.. 
  4. CIP : yang ni spesel sikit sebab dia ada insurance. Biasa untuk barang2 yang berharga. Dari segi cost Seller bertanggungjawab sampai Buyer Destination. Risk pulak seller responsible dari seller premis sampai naik carrier. Insurance pulak seller bertanggungjawab dari Carrier sampai Buyer Destination.
  5. DAT : dari segi Cost dan Risk, Seller responsible dari seller premis sampai terminal or arrival kat tempat buyer itu sendiri. 
  6. DAP : dari segi Cost dan Risk, seller bertanggungjawab dari seller premis sampai Buyer Destination. 
  7. DDP : dari segi Cost dan Risk, Seller yang bertanggungjawab dari Seller premise sampai buyer warehouse. Tapi ada yang cakap dan selalu diguna pakai. Responsible tu hanya sampai ke Buyer Destination bukan Buyer Warehouse. DDP ni pulak seller yang bayar segala taxes and duty dari point of origin to the point of consumption. 
  8. FAS : Cost dan Risk seller must responsible from Seller premise until loading bay kat port tu. Nak unload dia masuk kapal.. 
  9. FOB : dari segi Cost dan Risk, Seller yang bertanggungjawab dari Seller Premise sampai goods tu dah selamat kat atas kapal.
  10. CFR : yang ni lain sikit. dari segi Cost, seller bertanggungjawab sampai Port of Destination. maksudnya, barang tu sampai kat port buyer. Risk dia pulak, sampai goods tu dah selamat naik atas kapal dan sedia untuk belayar.. hehehe
  11. CIF : Cost dia seller tanggung sampai Port of Destination. atau dah sampai kat port buyer. Risk dia pulak, seller tanggung sampai goods tu dah sampai naik atas kapal dan siap sedia nak belayar. TAPI, INSURANCE pulak seller akan bertanggungjawab dari goods tu dah naik atas kapal sampai dia arrival kat Port of Destination. 
Fuhh! penat pulak jd lecturer ni. Bagaimana anak-anak? dah paham?
Senang je kan? siap ada gambar lagi..

Ok. Sekarang admin Shaa dah ngantuk. Admin Shaa nak tido.. semoga berjaya uolsss.. 


12.01 a.m



Morning Malaysian :')

New glossary for this morning. Remember glossary for word E.

European Currency Units. A financial unit used for EC accounting.

En route
Along the route of movement.

Estimated time of arrival.

Estimated time of departure.

Ex Work
An INCOTERMS term of sale applicable to all modes of transport.

Shipment of goods to another country.

Export Declaration
A government document permitting designated goods to be shipped out of the country.



Morning Malaysian :')

Today, new glossary in shipping for word D . Let's we check ~ Heee :D

D & H
Dangerous and Hazardous. (Also see "Dangerous Goods")

Dead Weight. The number of tons a ship can transport of cargo, stores and bunker fuel. (Also see "Deadweight Tonnage")

Dangerous Goods
The term used by I.M.C.O. for hazardous materials which are capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety or property while being transported.

Destination Delivery Charges. A charge assessed by the carrier for handling positioning of a full container.

Dead Space
Space in a car, truck, vessel, etc., that is not utilized.

Deadweight Tonnage (D/W)
The number of total weight tons that a vessel can transport of cargo, stores and bunker fuel. It is the difference between the number of tons of water a vessel displaces "light" and the number of tons it displaces when submerged to the "load line."

Dedicated Unit Train
An unit train operated by various railroads for exclusive usage.

Delivery Order
A document authorizing delivery to a nominated party of goods in the care of a third party. Can be issued by a carrier on surrender of a bill of lading and then used by the merchant to transfer title by endorsement.

Depot Container
Container freight station or a designated area where empty containers can be picked up or dropped off.

The place where the carrier actually turns over the cargo to consignee or his agent.

Charges raised for detaining container/trailer at customer premises for longer period than provided in Tariff.

Detention Charge
See "Detention".

The removal of cargo from a container. Also known as unstuffing, unloading or stripping.

Dynamic Flow Guidelines -- which is used to control the on-land stock level of each region taking into account of the traffic pattern and local vanning/devanning dwell time. The shortest the dwell time, the lowest the DFG and the more efficient the equipment utilization will be.

Differential Rate
An amount added or deducted from base rate to make a rate to or from some other point or via another route.

A change made in the route of a shipment in transit.

The route of a shipment changed in transit from that shown on the original billing. Used interchangeably with reconsign.

(a) The water alongside a pier or wharf. (b) Loading or unloading platform at an industrial location or carrier terminal.

Dock Receipt
A form used to acknowledge receipt of cargo at a steamship pier. When delivery of a foreign shipment is completed, the dock receipt is surrendered to the vessel operator or the operator's agent and serves as basis for preparation of the ocean bill of lading.

Through transportation of a container and its contents from consignor's premises to consignee's premises.

Double-Deck Load
A second tier of cargo placed on top of the first tier.

A truck or other equipment designed to haul heavy loads.

Charge made for local hauling by dray or truck.

Dry Cargo
Cargo that does not require temperature control.

Dry Dock
An enclosed basin into which a ship is taken for underwater cleaning and repairing. It is fitted with watertight entrance gates which when closed permit the dock to be pumped dry.

Dry-Bulk Container
A container constructed to carry grain, powder and other free flowing solids in bulk.

Double Stack Train. Rail or train capable of carrying two 40' containers, one on top of the other.

Dunnage (Dge.)
Lumber or other material used to brace material in carrier's equipment.

Dwell Time
It is expressed in term of no. of day that a container changed from one status to another e.g. from under inbound load (UIL) to empty available (MTA) to under outbound load (UOL). The shorter the dwell time, the more efficient the container utilization will be.



Hello Malaysian :')

Ahah ! There have some notes about the ship. Not only one or two types of ship but there have a lot types of ship. Can't believe it ? Let's we check the notes ! ~

General Cargo Ship
Container Vessel
Classified as unit load ships, carry many types of product
General Cargo Ship
Includes items which are packed or unpacked. They usually have spacious holds which occupy the larger part of the hull.
Specialized Cargo Ship
Bulk Carrier Types
Include The Panamax tonnage (50,000-79,999 DWT/routes from east North America, Canada, South Africa, China, India, Sweden and Indonesia/coal and iron ore), The Capesize dry bulk carrier(80,000-170,000 DWT/convey coal and iron ore and are not for fertilizer and grain shipment), The Handymax Ship(35,000-49,999 DWT/routes Balck Sea to Far East, the Far East to Atlantic/coal, iron ore, fertilizer grain, steel slabs, bauxite and alumina)and The Handysize bulk carrier(20,000-34,999 DWT/smaller shipment of a range of bulk cargo types and serving ports of limited draught and berth length/routes Black Sea from Ukraine&Russia to Middle East).
Shipment usually under charter and transport ore, coal, coke and building material. Light bulkers carry grain, salt and sugar.
Provided with two holds each supplied with derricks to handle a variety of cargoes, machinery and crew accommodation are aft.
Product Carrier
4 major divisions: Aframax, Panamax, ‘Handy’ and small.
The traditional classes of product carriers are medium-sized or handy product carriers between 30,000 and 50,000 DWT and small sized product carriers between 10,000 and 30,000 DWT.
Small sized product are limited to intra-regional markets and vice versa.
Combi Carrier
A unitized type of cargo carrier combining container and vehicular shipments including ro/ro.
Equipped with two derricks of 36 tons and 180 tons thereby aiding the transshipment of heavy indivisible loads.
Fruit Carrier
Fast voyage times are essential, cool air system installed, containerized.
OBO (Ore/Bulk/Oil)
Multi-purpose bulk carrier for switching between bulk shipment of oil, bulk grain, fertilizer and ore trades.

Pure Car and Truck Carrier (PCTC)

Conveyance of cars, lorries/trucks and other wheeled units.
Refrigerated Vessel
Containerized, multi-deck hull, handling mode is lift on/lift off, have side elevators or side doors.
Ro/Ro Vessel
Used for transporting motor vehicles and other wheeled equipment, cargo is carried on wheeled containers or trailers.
Timber Carrier
Have large unobstructed holds and large hatches to facilitate cargo handling, capacity 5,000-20,000 ton, speed 13-15 knots.
Platform Supply Vessels
Handle the transportation of all necessary equipment.
The total support vessel tow drilling rigs, handle anchors, work as fire-fighting vessel and assist in restraining oil pollution.
Heavy Lift Shipping
Divide into four Semi-submersible heavy lift ships, Conventional heavy lift ships, Tow barges and Dock ship.

Liquid Cargo Ship
Oil Tanker Tonnage
Categories 1:PREMARPOL, 20,000 and 30,000 tons above, do not comply with protectively located segregated ballast tanks.
Categories 2:MARPOL, 20,000 and 30,000 tons above, comply with protectively located segregated ballast tanks.
Categories 3:5,000 above but less than categories 1 and 2.
Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC)
300,000 to 500,000 DWT
Crude oil transported from oilfields to refineries and petroleum and fuel oil from refineries to distribution centers and bunkering ports.
Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC)
150,000 to 299,999 DWT
Suezmax Tanker
120,000 to 149,999 DWT.
Associated with crude exports from West Africa  and other markets is North Sea and Mediterranean.
Aframax Tanker
80,000 to 119,999 DWT.
With the exception of the North Sea Aframax crude carrier have exhibited growth on all their trade routes, especially the Caribbean basin and east coast of North America.
Panamax Tanker
50,000 to 80,000 DWT.
Pass through the Panama Canal.
Mainly identified with fuel oil cargoes.
Parcel tanker
Carry chemicals, petroleum products, edible oils and molasses.
Floating Production Storage and Off Loading Facilities (FPSOs), Floating Storage Unit (FSUs), for bulk liquids and gases.
Gas Tanker
Transporting liquefied natural gas (LNG), has bilobe tanks, pipeline system connected, can carry  ammonia, butane, propane, methyl chloride and others.
Product/ Chemical carrier
To convey all petroleum product, crude oil, vegetable oils, molasses and etc.
IMO class 2 and 3 cargoes, cargo and equipment are particularly vulnerable to damage from moisture.

Passenger Vessels
They transport people which can include liners ship, cruise ships, coastwise ship and yachts.
Designed to carry passengers, cabin accommodation for 12 or less when provided on a short haul service.
Ferry Fleet
The major advantage is voyage time reduction compared with conventional ferries.
4 main types mono-hull, catamarans, hydrofoils and hovercraft.