International Maritime Consultative Organization. A forum in which most major maritime nations participate and through which recommendations for the carriage of dangerous goods, bulk commodities and maritime regulations become internationally acceptable.

Inland Points Intermodal. Inland carriage by another mode of transportation after discharge.

International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. The IMO recommendations for the carriage of dangerous goods by sea.

Shipment of goods from a foreign country.

Import License
A document required and issued by some national governments authorizing the importation of goods into their individual countries.

Import Permit
Usually required for items that might affect the public health, morals, animal life, vegetation, etc. Examples include foodstuffs, feedstuffs, pharmaceuticals (human and
veterinary), medical equipment, seeds, plants and various written material (including tapes, cassettes, movies, TV tapes or TV movies). In some countries an import permit is the same as an import license.

In Transit
In transit, or in passage.

Inward bound. Direction of vessel or cargo going to port of discharge or final destination.

Incoterms are a set of uniform rules codifying the interpretation of trade terms defining the rights and obligation of both buyer and seller in an international transaction, thereby enabling anotherwise complex basis for a sale contract to be accomplished in three letters. Incoterms are drafted by the International Chamber of Commerce.

Inland Clearance Depot
A CFS with Customs Clearance Facilities.

Insulated Container
A container insulated on the walls, roof, floor and doors, to reduce the effect of external temperatures on the cargo.

Insulated Tank Container
The frame of a container constructed to hold one or more thermally insulated tanks for liquids.

Transfer of a container from one party to another.

Interchange Points
A terminal at which freight in the course of transportation is delivered by one transportation line to another.

Water service between two coasts; usually refers to water service between a point on the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts.

Used to denote movements of cargo or container between motor, rail or water carriers.

Intermodal Transport
Moving ocean freight containers by various transportation modes. The fact that the containers are of the same size and have common handling characteristics permits them to be transferred from truck to railroad to air carrier to ocean carrier.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
ISO is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 130 countries, one from each country. It is a non-governmental organization established in 1947 to promote the development of standardization facilitating international trade. ISO's work results in international agreements which are published as International Standards



Hello Malaysian ;)

Long time no see right ? So how's your life ? We hope everything gonna be okay . Today , we want share some knowledge to all of you . So here we go ~

Did you know there have different between liner and tramp ?

Liner is usually follow the schedule when to move the product. The rates of liner are fixed and also their time. Liner will publish their schedule and rates to the public . For example, when the customer ask to the liner to deliver the product today to the China. But the schedule to the China has state on tomorrow . So, the liner will deliver the customer product only tomorrow not today. This is because it should follow the schedule.

Usually liner are discussed their rates with their member of liner conference. They do not change the rates of the service. This is because the rates are fixed for all member of liner conference. In liner conference also will be fixed their port of call. They cannot stop at the any port. They should follow their regulation. When they changes their rates or dis obey, they can be penalty. All the member of liner conference will get same earning.

Tramps is not follow the schedule when to move the product. It only require when the customer want to used their service. their service price are not fixed. It also depends on the carrier to set up the price of the service. Usually tramps carry the product in seasonal demand and also bulk cargo. For example grain, coal, sugar. Tramps can give their service to customer at any time that customer want.

Tramps also handle the urgent product to deliver or emergency product. So, in this case, tramps can take advantage from the shipper . Carrier can take the higher cost of service to the shipper. This is because they should deliver the product in fast and also the price are not to negotiate . So, the shipper will accept, when the carrier set the price of the service is high . This is because they only think that the product should be arrived at the customer on time .



Hague Rules
1924 International Convention on Carriage of Goods by Sea. These rules govern liability for loss or damage to goods carried by sea under a bill of lading.

Hague-Visby Rules
1968 Revision of Hague Rules.

Hamburg Rules
In March 1978 an international conference in Hamburg adopted a new set of rules (The Hamburg Rules), which radically alter the liability which shipowners have to bear for loss or damage to goods in the courts of those nations where the rules apply.

Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding
A multi-purpose international goods-classification for manufacturers. Transporters, exporters, importers, customs officials, statisticians, and others in classifying goods

moving in international trade under a single commodity code. Developed under the auspices of the Customs Cooperations Council (CCC), an international customs organization in Brussels, this code is a hierarchically structured product nomenclature containing approximately 5,000 headings and subheadings describing the articles moving in international trade. It is organized into 99 chapters arranged in 22 sections. Sections encompass an industry [ (e.g., Section XI, Textiles and Textile Articles); chapters encompass the various materials and products of the industry (e.g.: Chapter 50, Silk; Chapter 55, Manmade Staple Fibres; Chapter 57, Carpets).] The basic code contains four-digit headings and six-digit subheadings. (The U.S. will add digits for tariff and statistical purposes. In the U.S. duty rates will be the 8-digit level; statistical suffixes will be at the 10-digit level. The Harmonized System (HS) is scheduled to supplant the current U.S. tariff schedule (TSUSA) in January 1988.)

The opening in the deck of a vessel; gives access to the cargo hold.

The participating carrier responsible for drayage.

Heavy Lift
Articles too heavy to be lifted by a ship's tackle.

Heavy-Lift Charge
A charge made for lifting articles too heavy to be lifted by a ship's tackle.

High Cube
Any container which exceeds 8 feet 6 inches (102 inches) in height, usually 9 feet 6 inches.

House B/L
Bill of lading issued by forwarder.

House-to-House (H/H)
See CY/CY.

House-to-Pier (H/P)

The body of a vessel exclusive of masts, yards, sails, rigging, machinery and equipment.

Hull Underwriter
The person with whom the ship hull, machinery apparel, and tackle is insured.



General Rate Increase

General Agreement on Tariff and Trade. An international multilateral agreement embodying a code of practice for fair trading in international commerce.

General Average
General average is an unwritten, non-statutory, international maritime law which is universally recognized and applied. It is founded on the principle that vessel and goods are parties to the same venture and share exposure to the same perils, which may require sacrifice or the incurring of extraordinary expense on the part of one for the benefit of the whole venture.

Genset (Generator Set)
A portable power generator, which converts fuel into electrical power by mechanical means, and from which a reefer draws power. A clip-on generator set is mounted to the front of the refrigeration unit. An underslung generator set is mounted to the chassis upon which the reefer is mounted for handling and transport. The underslung generator set can be either side-mounted or center-mounted on the chassis.

The front rails of the chassis that raise above the plane of the chassis and engage in the tunnel of a container.

Gross Tonnage
Applies to vessels, not to cargo. Determined by dividing by 100 the contents, in cubic feet, of the vessel's closed-in spaces. A vessel ton is 100 cubic feet.

Gross Weight
Entire weight of goods, packaging and container, ready for shipment.



European Union Naval Force Somalia – Operation Atalanta, NATO and Combined Task Force 151 (CTF 151) – the big three – call upon the shipping industry to continue to take anti-piracy measures despite the current downward trend in piracy events.In a recent report published by the International Maritime Bureau it was announced that there was a 54% drop in global piracy during the first half of 2012. One of the key contributors to this welcome development was the fall in both Somali hijackings and attacks. There are many factors which have led to this, two of which were the work of military forces in the region and self-protection measures taken by commercial shipping.
“We currently see a tactical and reversible success. It is of utmost importance that pressure on Somali pirates and their business model is maintained and even increased as the strategic context, the situation in Somalia allowing for pirates to act, has not yet changed” said Deputy Operation Commander Rear Admiral Gualtiero Mattesi, “International Navies and all merchant vessels transiting the High Risk Area, need to remain vigilant and uphold their respective responsibilities to support the fight against piracy.”
By joining forces, counter piracy efforts are more effective and can achieve more than any one ship, navy, organisation or country working alone. Even with all this military presence, the efforts of our naval forces cannot guarantee safety in the region. It is for this reason that CTF 151, NATO and the EU remind all ship-owners, operators and managers to continue to educate and train their mariners in both the threat and how to mitigate it.
The booklet Best Management Practices version 4 (BMP4) provides useful updates for masters in implementing protection measures to deter piracy. It is based on lessons learned from ships’ masters and can be downloaded from the NATO Shipping Centre and EU NAVOR/Maritime Security Centre – Horn of Africa websites ( where you can find information about the latest pirate eattacks and where they occurred.
Working together the military and the maritime industry is having a positive effect in frustrating the efforts of pirates. Despite the recent encouraging news now is not the time to lessen the efforts of all stakeholders in this area.
The European Union is concerned with the continuing impact of piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia on international maritime security and on the economic activities and security of countries in the region.
As a result, and as part of a comprehensive approach to Somalia, the EU launched the European Union Naval Force Somalia – Operation ATALANTA (EU NAVFOR – ATALANTA) within the framework of the European Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) and in accordance with relevant UN Security Council Resolutions (UNSCR) and International Law.
After the launch of EU NAVFOR – Operation ATALANTA in December 2008, the operation continues to successfully perform its mission and contributes to improving maritime security off the coast of Somalia and in the Indian Ocean. In March 2012 the Council of the EU extended the EU counter-piracy operation until December 2014.
By UNSC mandate, EU NAVFOR – Operation ATALANTA conducts:
* the protection of vessels of the World Food Programme (WFP) delivering food aid to displaced persons in Somalia; the protection of African Union Mission on Somalia (AMISOM) shipping;
* the deterrence, prevention and repression of acts of piracy and armed robbery off the Somali coast;
* the protection of vulnerable shipping off the Somali coast on a case by case basis;
* in addition, EU NAVFOR – ATALANTA shall also contribute to the monitoring of fishing activities off the coast of Somalia.

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